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Scientific Papers

Through our combined knowledge of scientific research, journalism, and peacebuilding, we grow our databases with primary and reliable information that manifests across YIC products such as our news portal, peer-reviewed journal, and other upcoming outputs. 


YIC delivers some of Yemen's most essential and timely scientific research that generates tested results that inform projects for Yemen's future. Our in-depth studies highlight the challenges and opportunities in reconstruction planning, sustainable development, peacebuilding, societal transformation, and much more.


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The Role of Small Projects in
Community Development

Paper No6 - August 2021

Dr. Fathia Mohammad Baheshwan 

Research summary

Small enterprises in most countries, especially developing ones, are the main engine for the prosperity of economic growth, while the deterioration leads to the growing of unemployment and the prevalence of economic stagnation. Due to its pivotal role in production, employment and income management. In addition to its role in achieving economic and social goals. The importance of small and medium enterprises in developing and developed countries is growing. Due to the evidence of the current high growth rates of these projects and it superior ability to treat some issues such as unemployment and poverty. In addition to achieving development for society.

The Purpose

This paper attempts to identify small projects and their role in achieving economic development in society. Besides, the extent of women's contribution to these projects.

Child Labor

Paper No5 - September 2021

Dr. Fathia Mohammad Baheshwan 

Research summary

Child labor is one of the complex and cross-cutting problems that have emerged in the recent years, influencing and affecting all economic, social, health and cultural aspects of the child, and sometimes having a negative and devastating impact on him/her, and hence on his/her family. The phenomenon of child labor refers to their exploitation in any form of work, depriving them of their childhood, impeding or threatening their education, restricting their rights and limiting their opportunities in the future, as well as leading to vicious cycles of poverty. This exploitation is prohibited by legislations all over the world, thus this phenomenon has emerged as a result of a combination of many factors, the most important of which are poverty and unemployment, in addition to family problems, which pushed them to the labor market to meet their necessary needs, thus turning them from dependent individuals to participants in the economic support.

The Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to shed light on this phenomenon and the extent of its spread in Yemen, in addition to identify its causes and effects on the individual and society. Some recommendations were made, including providing adequate social protection for all, including comprehensive benefits for children; increased spending on quality education; the return of all children to school; providing services and programs that fight poverty and its causes; ensuring income-generating programs for families with economic problems; as well as establishing offices to protect children from homelessness and beggary; and establishing institutions or social welfare homes.

Volunteering Girls in Hadhramout

Paper No4 - July 2021

Dr. Fathia Mohammad Baheshwan 

Research summary

This paper deals with voluntary work. It shows in the first part concept, importance, characteristics, and types of voluntary work. In the second part, the paper deals with the volunteering of the girl in Hadhramaut, and then concludes with important recommendations. Social, development and voluntary work is one of the most important means used to contribute to the advancement of the status of societies in our time. It is gaining increasing importance day by day. It is taken for granted that governments - whether in developed or developing countries - are no longer able to meet the needs of their individuals and societies. With the complexity of life conditions, social needs have increased and become in constant change. Therefore, it was necessary to have another body parallel to the official bodies to fill the public sphere and complement the role played by the official bodies in meeting social needs. These bodies are called “Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs)”. In many cases, the role of NGOs is a proactive- not a complementary- role in addressing some social, economic and cultural issue. It is laying down development plans/ programs that governments should follow.

Addressing the University Issues in light of Emergencies

Paper No3 - December 2020

Dr. Qais Ahmed Al Mohammadi

Research summary

There is a set of justifications and motives that require urgent treatment in the university and technical education. When the Yemeni war commenced its sixth year and due to the non-existence of actual international indicators and directions to stop the bloody conflict in a prelude to bringing peace to this moment, as long as the international support is directed towards the humanitarian response without supporting the issues related to the education directed towards maintaining the remaining components of the economic and social development.. Which means destruction of the Yemeni human’s future through the permanence of the conflict that will inevitably create defeated, corrupt or dependent generations on the external support, which is a catastrophe the effects of which will multiply in the near future, and the treatment thereof will take decades. In view of the prolonged conflict, logically, proceeding with the response programs will turn into a catastrophe per se in case it does not extend to include the supporting programs of development, whose fundamental components are education of all its various stages.

The challenges and imbalances of the Yemeni education sector have aggravated and become at the forefront of the most pressing issues in the contemporary time, which are supporting the teacher and students and creating contemporary specializations, etc. A study conducted in 2020 has revealed the lack of adequate treatments of the economic, social and educational crises resulted from the war in relation to the Yemeni higher education institutions. In this article, we discuss the emergency treatments that do not require strategies and large financial allocations, to be among the alternatives available to the decision-makers and other active authorities, such a manner that is commensurate with the war conditions and deep crises. It is understood that the war resulted in disastrous situations. The components of a single state have become fragmented and many external challenges and internal crises have emerged to face the Yemeni university education, one side of which is clearly and severely affected, while the other side is still not apparent, and its effects on the near future will be more severe.

Old Sana'a

Paper No2 - December 2020

Dr. Fathia Mohammed Mohammed

Research Summary

Sana'a city emerges as a shining star in the history of the Arabs since the beginning of the time. It is the origin of the Arabs and the wellspring of originality. It was, and is still, the source of ancient civilizations. Sana'a had been built hundred years ago, and it witnessed many states and different intellectual ideologies, and each of which had a role in Sana'a city, whether in intellectual, political or economic aspect. Despite the events it experienced, Sana’a city has remained and survived and it still represents the official identity of each Yemeni citizen inside or outside Yemen.

Name: There are several views about the name, where the linguists of the ancient Yemeni language (Al Musnad) assert that "San'ou" is the ancient name of Sana'a city, which means the well-fortified place. This is emphasized by the fact that the city is surrounded by walls and fortresses. For the name "Sana'a" in the ancient Yemeni inscriptions (Al Musnad), it is derived from the word "Sanaa" that means to fortify. It is also said "Tasnaa" that means to entrench or fortify also. Moreover, some Yemeni areas are called "Masnaa" and the plural is "Massane", and the word "Yasno'a" is used for smaller places, which means the fortified villages located above elevated places. Sana'a was called as Sam city, the name that is attributed to Sam, the son of Noah, where he was seeking a place of moderate weather and he chose Sana'a. It was also named Azal city. This name was mentioned in the Torah for one of the sons of Yaqton bin Amer bin Shamikh bin Sam bin Noah. It was also said that when the Abyssinians saw that Sana'a is built with stones, they called it "Sanaa".

Despite the foregoing, all of these names (Azal, Sam and Sana'a) are still used for Sana'a city.

The Forgotten Treasure in Yemen

Paper No1- December 2020

Dr. Belkis Mutahhar Al-Ariqi

Research Summary

Yemen's tourist treasures are not limited to its cities only. In fact, there are countless treasures in its countryside like its natural park that is multi-beautiful and low in cost. In our countryside, we can find stunning landscapes, charming agricultural terraces and very green plains and valleys, as well as villages that combine the beauty of nature and urbanization, mountains and plateaus with high peaks, and a pure and moderate climatic atmosphere throughout the year. It includes wonderful archaeological areas witnessing the glory of our ancestors and their great exploits, as well as pouring waterfalls and therapeutic water springs. In addition to that, the countryside of Yemen is inhabited by people who are kind-hearted and welcoming.

However, rural tourism in Yemen suffers from neglect and indifference to developing its infrastructure, and a lack of awareness of its importance and its economic return on the rural people, and on rural development alike, as is the case in Western countries, and some Arab countries such as Egypt and Jordan.

Analysis That Matters.

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